The integration of phage DNA into the bacterial chromosome occurs because of, Once integrated, phage DNA can remain in the prophage state as long as, The activation of the SOS system in a bacterium infected with a prophage results in. -many animal viruses induce the cell's endoplasmic reticulum to form membranous organelles called virus factories (an intracellular complex of membranes and proteins that forms progeny virions, Ex of double stranded DNA virus is human papilloma virus (HPV) causes genital warts, as the keratinocytes containing HPV complete differentiation, the cells start to come apart and are shed from the epithelial surface. When prions come into close proximity with the normal proteins, they cause them to refold into the prion form. This information is not always known, especially at the beginning of the infection. There are some limitations in the use of phages to treat bacterial infections. The efficiency with which a phage forms plaques on different host strains. if PapD was missing from the bacteria, how would this affect pap pilus assembly? \begin{matrix} Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences. -how virus binds to cell-surface receptors, Plaque isolation and Assay of Bacteriophages, -viruses cannot be isolated as "colonies." How many valence electrons does each carbon atom have? The growth phase of phage whereby the phage DNA is incorporated into the bacterial cell and remains in a stable, silent state. These different phage genomes are circularly permutated with respect to each other. The genetic material of HIV consists of _____. Even on solid medium, viruses never form a solid visible mass comparable to the mass of cells that constitutes a cellular colony, Christy C. Hayhoe, Doug Hayhoe, Jeff Major, Maurice DiGiuseppe. The viral envelope proteins gp120 and gp41 interact with CD4 and a co-receptor on the host-cell membrane. Viruses can vary with respect to all of the following characteristics except __________. This is said to "lysogenize" the host in a cycle called lysogeny. $$If a cell's growth is strong, it is more likely that the phage DNA will remain inactive, whereas events that threaten host survival will trigger a lytic burst. What significant mammalian adaptations led to their success during the Cenozoic Era? Takes over helper T cells. A long DNA molecule that contains multiple copies of the same DNA sequences linked end to end. A genetic disorder is traced within a family. Circular clear areas in a lawn of bacteria growing on an agar plate. phages are only created during which process? The process by which phage make one long piece of DNA that contains multiple phage genomes. Imagine you are a climatologist beginning to create a computer model that will predict changes in Arctic sea ice. What are advantages and disadvantages (to a virus) of the slow-release strategy, compared with the strategy of a temperate phage, which alternates between lysis and lysogeny? restriction enzyme (restriction endonuclease). A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage. As the host population declines, viruses are less likely to find a new host before the lose infectivity, while many of the remaining hosts have undergone selection for resistance. What are the 3 treatments for acne discussed in lecture. A human virus-receptor interaction is that of rhinovirus. An infected plant produces seeds that contain the virus, giving rise to infected progeny. Phage particles extrude through cell envelope without lysing the cell. Phage whose infectious particles are long filaments of nucleic acid that are coated by protein. Virulent as well as temperate phages can serve as generalized transducing phages. Animals that harbor and can transmit a particular virus but are generally unaffected by it are said to act as a __________ for that virus. produced in a sequential manner AND used to customize the cell for viral production. Multicellular organisms have many body cells. A piece of DNA that exists outside the chromosome. Fossil fuels are commonly used as an energy source for transportation vehicles. lytic or lysogenic? All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes. The process by which DNA is cut at a specific sequence by an enzyme known as a restriction endonuclease. A larger genome may lead to formation of larger virus particles. What is the most effective way to stop viral infections? the virus binds to specific receptors that are only present on certain immune cells. ___ are among the smallest infective agents, A(n) ____ is a geometric viral form, having 20 faces & 12 corners, Term used to describe the different host cells which a virus can infect, ___ phages enter the prophage state, while __ phages burst the host cell. Which of the following organisms does not have its virulence increased by lysogenic conversions? Therefore, their are referred to as ___ intracellular parasites, The TOTAL NUCLEIC ACID content of a virus can be referred to as the viral ___, 3 main criteria used in classifying viruses, Type of virus that parasitizes other viruses infecting the same host cell, Two noncellular infectious agents (besides viruses) that are medically important, Distinct protein fibrils in the brain tissue; infectious proteins, Virus like agent composed of naked strands of RNA (lacks capsid/coating); Parasites to plants, 1. -pararetroviruses possess a DNA genome that requires transcription to RNA in the cytoplasm, followed by reverse transcription to form DNA genomes for progeny virions. The Sun radiates energy onto all areas of Earths surface. Solve tough problems on your own with the help of expert-verified explanations. Reactivation of a latent herpes infection results in painful outbreaks of skin lesions, -differs from lysis and lysogeny in that phage particles reproduce without destroying the host cell. Virions infect helper T cells and other lymphocytes of the active immune system. The bidirectional replication of a circular DNA molecule where initiation of replication starts at a single ori. Prions convert normal proteins into the misfolded prion version. Within an enveloped virus, such as HIV, the capsid may be called the core particle, a cell-free zone on a lawn of bacterial cells caused by viral cell lysis, -2.5 megabases, which is larger than the genomes of some microbial cells, A phage genome integrated into a host genome, a viral genome that is integrated into a host genome, 1) Virion, or virus particle: The vision is an inert particle consisting of nucleic acid enclosed by a protein capsid. An Ames test is used to determine whether an unknown chemical is mutagenic.$$ The (+) strand RNA is uncoated by insertion through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm, much as a bacteriophage inserts its genome into a cell. The nucleic acid enclosed in the phage particle that specifies the production of more phage. What kinds of questions about viruses can be addressed in tissue culture, and what questions require infection of an animal model? Why are viruses often considered to be nonliving? In most cases, the incoming phage cannot replicate. Christy C. Hayhoe, Doug Hayhoe, Jeff Major, Maurice DiGiuseppe, Miller and Levine Biology, Foundation Edition, Use the clues to unscramble the science term: Makes up most of Earth's energy _____ (OALRS DIATRIONA), Match the term with its definition. The host will treat them as an infectious agent and attempt to eliminate the virus.

At minimum, viruses are composed of NUCLEIC ACID & a ___ (protein coat surrounding a virus), All viruses have a protein ___ (shell) that surrounds the Nucleic Acid in the central core, T/F: Antibiotics are an effective treatment for most VIRAL infections. Discuss why DNA replication is more complex in eukaryotes than in bacteria. Culture within animals ensures that the virus strain maintains its original virulence (ability to cause disease). The reason is that although viruses can be obtained at incredibly high concentrations, they disperse in suspension. Klosneuvirus shows evidence of integrating genes from cellular hosts. In slow-release replication, single-stranded circular DNA of M13 serves as a template to synthesize a double-stranded intermediate. The process of modifying specific sites in the DNA to prevent restriction enzymes from digesting the DNA. They transcribe RNA to DNA using reverse transcriptase. The lytic cycle of bacteriophage infection ends with the _____. Usually specific for a single bacterial species. Plasmids must contain an origin of DNA replication (ori) so that they can be replicated and inherited by daughter cells. Discuss the use of phages in treating infections. A virus that infects bacteria. allows replication of the page genome without destroying the host. This is good in that the phage will be selective and target that particular bacteria. Frequently the result of rolling circle replication. Prions are __________ that are thought to cause disease by __________. Prophages of pathogenic bacteria express virulence factors but can express positive factors as well including.

A virion does not carry out any metabolism or energy conversion, -large viruses originated from reductive evolution of an intracellular bacterium, -Acute viruses (which rapidly kill their hosts) act as predators or parasites to limit host population density They also recycle nutrients from their host bodies. There are three types of restriction enzymes (TypeI, II, and III). The restriction-modification system always has two genes involved, the cutting enzyme and the methylating enzyme. The 2009 outbreak is considered a pandemic even though its death toll was much lower than that of 1918-1919 pandemic. \end{matrix} The main purpose of a ___ is to trigger an immunological reaction against a virus or other microbe. Completed filamentous phages are often found in the cytoplasm of infected bacteria. People who suffer from vertigo feel dizzy and disoriented in certain situations. -poxviruses (vaccinia), which contain an oval-shaped particle nearly as large as a cell (200-300nm). Which direction is the lagging strand read? PROTEIN FIBERS AT THE END OF THE PHAGE TAIL, During penetration of E coli by the T4 phage. \text{ } & \text{E. ""In air""}\\ Once there, the nucleic acid is used to make more of the virus. The cells of unicellular organisms divide to replace cells and to grow; those of multicellular organisms divide to reproduce. RNA viruses, because no proofreading is done on RNA molecules.

The replicative form of nucleic acid in filamentous phages is. 1.47 10^8 m/s. Cytopatihic effects in virally infected animal cells, Term used to describe how some viruses burst cells during the Release stage of viral multiplication, 1. \text{ } & \text{B. TEM but details of capsid structure have to be viewed with digital reconstruction of cry-EM images. \text{Term} & \text{Definition}\\ A bacterium that contains a stable, silent phage genome. The virion contains two (+) strand RNA copies of the HIV genome, each carrying its own reverse transcriptase. probably keep the numbers of bacteria in check AND are active in passing DNA from one bacterium to another. Transduction often involves defective virus. This is because __________.

Class IV viruses are characterized by which of the following types of genomes? Slow release is performed by filamentous phages such as phage M13. Which of the following is not a class I virus? Be sure to consider environmental, health, and economic factors. When attacked by bacteriophages, bacterial populations undergo natural selection; mutants that happen to be harder to infect will survive.

How do prions propagate and replicate themselves? d. population. Virulent phages replicate through the lytic cycle only, and temperate phages replicate using both the lytic and the lysogenic cycles. Viruses are extremely small and as such cannot carry very much material or information with them. How does lysogen "decide" to reactivate and begin a lytic cycle? The integration of phage DNA into host DNA occurs in much the same fashion as seen in transformation, transduction or conjugation. Contain phage but have few or no bacteria growing in them. The speed of light in arsenic trisulfide glass is How are the salt ducts an adaptation to the iguana's environment? How should scientists express very large numbers when reporting data? What part of the E. coli T4 phage attaches to the host cell receptors? Synthetic media will not support the growth of viruses. What does a model called the tree of life show about all living things? -lytic cycle of replication generates a large number of progeny phages and then lyses the defunct cell, which requires these steps: a temperate phage (capable of lysogeny), like lambda, can infect and lyse cells like a virulent phage, but also has an alternative pathway: to integrate its genome into the host chromosome. what is an icosahedral virus? The DNA copy then enters the nucleus, where viral integrates enzyme integrates the DNA into the host genome. Candidates for the original source of viral genomes include __________. Toxin) in the infected bacterium, Prophage in a lysogenic cell is activated and progress into viral replication and Lytic cycle, persistence of a prophage without phage replication and destruction of bacterial cell, A(n) ___ virus has a membranous layer external to the nucleocapsid, The ___ virus is the simplest virus that consists of a capsid assembled around nucleic acid strand(s), The virus buds off the membrane, and picks up an envelope and spikes - in the __ stage of the viral life cycle, Commonalities between Temperate Phages & Lytic Phages (5). A prairie dog, a hawk, and a snake are all members of the same a. niche. may involve some self-assembly AND may involve the use of scaffolds. A phage that is capable of both lytic and lysogenic growth. Are LEDs a better alternative? \text{ } & \text{D. Process in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid}\\ Filamentous virus are incapable of causing a lytic infection. -unable to reproduce, since DNA polymerases cannot reach its genome for reproduction and RNA polymerase cannot transcribe its genes to make gene products, -forms a package out of repeating protein units generated by a small number of genes encoded by a short chromosomal sequence. 1)Genetic resistance: To save a crop it may be interbred with a wild strain that possesses genes conferring resistance, human pathogens come from other humans or from related animals referred to as vectors, a culture in an enclosed vessel of liquid medium. What is the advantage of having a icosahedron as opposed to a another polyhedron such as a cube or tetrahedron? The disorder occurs mostly in males. The phage DNA that is maintained in a silent state inside a bacterium. -viruses of same genome class (such as double-stranded DNA) show greater evidence of shared ancestry with each other than with viruses of a different class of genome (such as RNA). -plant viruses infect cells by mechanisms that do not involve specific membrane receptors. How does creating a moist microenvironment around the areas of water loss reduce transpiration rate? Alternatively, a different cell protein evolves to block phage binding to the receptor. Why can flare-ups of herpes virus infection recur throughout a person's life? Rarely, DNA virus can mutate and evolve ability to package its RNA transcript, rather than its DNA, in a capsid. Similarly, in animal viral infections such as herpes, an environmental stress triggers reactivation of a virus that was dormant within cells (a latent infection). Retroviruses use the enzyme reverse transcriptase to transcribe a copy of DNA from their own RNA. Write a brief report to communicate your opinion. The protein coat that surrounds the phage genome in a phage particle. Analyze the impact a nonnative species might have on a native species in terms of population dynamics. randomly bump into the bacteria AND attach to proteins or carbohydrates on the bacterial surface. Which of the following events occurs during the lytic life cycle of phages? What are the advantages and disadvantages of replication by the host polymerase, compared with using a polymerase encoded by its own genome? A third limitation is how to keep them alive long enough in the body in order for them to kill the bacteria. A bacteriophage that incorporates itself into the host genome as a Lysogenic Prophage, When referring to a microbe that cannot reproduce, the term ___ is to BACTERIA, as the term ___ is to VIRUSES, Term used to describe the process in which a virus is ENGULFED by a cell and enclosed in a vacuole or vesicle, Term used to describe the physical rupture of a cell, A non-enveloped virus is also called a(n) ___ virus, Enveloped viruses release newly assembled viruses through __ or __, Naked viruses release newly assembled viruses through ___, Disease-causing agent composed only of protein, Some deadly human pathogens such as diphtheria, cholera, and botulism are made more virulent by bacteriophages known as ___ phages, or Prophages, Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman, Ann E. Reynolds, Lee Silver, Leland Hartwell, Leroy Hood, Michael Goldberg.

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