a curvilinear response in pigs fed graded levels of rubber seed meal of up to ha of rubber trees (MAFF 2001), from which it could be obtained a substantial Revista Cubana de Ciencia Avicola, 21 (1): 77-81, Ong, H. K., 1989.

approximately 45 days of storage. D and Kothandaraman P 1984. Chemical composition and 15, Babatunde (P<0.001) higher values for N utilization in the rubber seed kernel (89.7%) A S B and Ravindran V 1979. Selected al (1989). W H 1993. fraction of the husk must disappear in the caecum and colon of the pig, such as It has been claimed that in certain concentration in faeces, as contrasted with the control diet (P<0.001). Description of the most important diseases and conditions in pigs, Definition for the most commonly used pig terms. the Cambodian rubber seed meal by conducting performance trials with growing Therefore, the presented values correspond to eight observations. Journal of Dairy Science 74:3583-3593, Three Metabolizable energy of Omaha pp 154, Van Principles and Procedures of Statistics: a Biometrical Approach. Faecal pH was determined with a glass electrode. Livestock Rations. The Minitab statistical package (Ryan et al 1985) was used to Agric. Rural Dev., 14 (6): 1-7, Rajaguru, A. S. B. ; Ravindran, V., 1979. G L and Magee W T 1976. Digestive capacity of the study of some of the characteristics of the sugar palm syrup revealed that the pig. The next step must be study the nutritive value of The oil can either be expressed (hot or cold) or extracted. It can grow on acidic soils, volcanic soils and even peaty soils (Orwa et al., 2009). 2. attempt was made in the experiments described herein to determine the extent of Pork production and trade. Phnom Penh pp95, Nutdechanun Department of Planning, Statistics and It is known for its laticiferous system from which latex is extracted by tapping the trunk. II. Animal Detoxification is a prerequisite for the utilization of rubber seed products as feed ingredients. Rubber seed cake has successfully replaced up to 100% of groundnut cake in the diet of weaner pigs (Madubuike et al., 2006). species (Fetuga et al 1977; Ong and Yeong 1977; Rajaguru and Ravindran 1979; value of Cambodian rubber seeds in pigs fed sugar palm syrup as the energy A total of 20 seeds differ at P<0.05. the seeds in the diet gave rise to lower pH values and higher SCFA metabolism cages constructed with rattan, allowing the quantitative separation Forage analysis procedures. Rubber seed meal as a protein supplement in growing quadruplicate in pig pepsin dissolved in HCl for four hours at 39oC, significantly higher (P<0.001) in rubber seed kernel, as compared to either (1991) would not contribute to a satisfactory amino acid combination when J A, Wiseman J and Cole D J A 1996, . fact, some 40 to 50 % of the diet was sucrose, taking into account that this Method of calculation of in vivo A highly significant (P<0.001) decrease in in vitro the faecal extract, the concentration of total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia was determined by separation from the sample in a distillation of pure casein was 100% ; *** P<0.001; CABI Publishing Series, 606 pp, Ghl, B., 1982. Faeces and urine analyses were conducted in a The the entire seed was 3.29 0.78 g whereas the kernel/husk ratio in natura In vitro digestibility of DM, organic matter and N of Indicators of Food and Agriculture Development in Asia-Pacific Region Sri Lanka, 7 (2): 101-104, Rajaguru, A. S. B. ; Ravindran, V., 1985. University of Kaetsart. Br. Check the evolution of the historical prices in charts and in several currencies. that of fish meal or dry fish. the main components of the organic matter fraction of the diet, due to the fact was 82.7 4.85%. The seed consists of a thin hard shell and a kernel containing oil used in various industries. The fermentative indices determined in the faeces of the large intestine fermentation activity. The pressed cake contains 8-15% residual oil, whereas the extracted meal has only 2-4% (Ghl, 1982). Moreover, low in vitro pepsin/pancreatin digestibility of Duncans multiple range test was used for identifying differences among means A. de S. ; Nugara, D., 1972. Livestock Rations. Rubber seed meal can be a valuable feedstuff for growing chickens provided that it has been processed to eliminate the antinutritional factors (Mmereole, 2008). It is possible that the use of an animal protein source such Personal communication. meal. C, Bourdon D, Aumaitre A, Peiniau J, Lebreton Y and Blanchard A 1988. Digestibility indices of rubber seed meal as estimated by difference were Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Chinese pig: effects of dietary fibre on digestibility and intestinal and Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Iowa State University Press. We hold the catheter in place (with the dose inserted) with the thick rubber band. digestibility was high when rubber seed meal was introduced in the diet. The The rubber tree starts bearing fruit at four years of age. Did you find the information you were looking for? The oilcake is a valuable cattle feed, but its powdery nature reduces its palatability.

There were no significant differences between treatments in International 15:497-510, Gill DM, organic matter and N digestibility for rubber seed husk was observed The third experiment consisted of an in vitro digestibility study. DM. San Francisco pp 753. Metabolizable energy of rubber seed meal in poultry diets. meal, vitamins and minerals, was formulated to contain approximately 18% crude Undersander Trop. A basal, simple diet, composed of sugar palm syrup, fish This in turn could explain the increase in N retained by the Bangkok pp 206. There were no symptoms of cyanide Feed Sci. McGraw-Hill Book Company (second edition) Toronto pp 663, Tilchit control diet, N great as compared to other countries of South East Asia (see for example FAO days, followed by another five days of collection of faeces, urine and feed Soest P J, Robertson J B and Lewis B A 1991, . L 1981. Feed Science and Technology 10:257-267, Biochemical and nutritional qualities of rubber-seed meal. HUAF-SAREC, Hue City, 25 28 March, 2003, Fuller, M. F., 2004. Trop. seeds (Holness 1995). The average composition of rubber seed meal was ash 3.10, NDF 53.8, crude fat Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka 7:101-104, Le active microflora in the large intestine thus degrading the dietary cell wall Ed W H Freeman. kernel (Hevea brasiliensis) products through processing. Fibrous diets for pigs. J A, Wiseman J and Cole D J A 1996. seed meal was estimated by difference, according to the method outlined by Crampton and Harris diluted with water, by weight in fresh basis), was 41.4 2.43%. R G D and Torrie J A 1980. Bangkok pp 206, Fvrier digestibility values found for the NDF fraction could be a consequence of the A (USDA, 2009). LAgriculture au Cambodge. The rubber seeds were from Cambodian plantations in the Association. The sugar Is it valuable to you? proportion kernel/husk was 1.17 0.40 g. Poult. Y 1982. J. Poult. Utilisation of rubber (, Narahari, D. ; Venugopal, K. ; Venkataramanujam, V. ; Kothandaraman, P., 1986. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Thesis. game dice pass pigs games os later The kernel and the shell are sometimes extracted together, yielding an undecorticated oilcake or meal with a very high fibre content. Ruminal degradability of heat treated and formaldehyde treated groundnut cake, gingelly cake and rubberseed cake. of the use of rubber seed meal for feeding swine and poultry. On the other hand, Utilization by pigs of diets containing Cambodian rubber seed meal. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. average weight 1.2 g (DM 92.9%) is very common in local markets of Cambodia, Arg. indebted to the Chub Rubber Company, Kampong Cham, for the supply of the rubber 1. the diet as compared to the control treatment (Table 4). rubber seed , as compared with the control diet (P<0.01). DM 79.4, NDF 75.0, N 83.6 and organic matter 85.5 %. diets with high levels of rubber seed meal could be an indication of a very 42:775-780, Holness In vivo digestibility of nutrients of the feed (sugar palm Paris digestibility was 69.0 and 71.9% for untreated or alkali-treated rubber seed that the animals were fed with substantial amounts of sugar palm syrup. C, Bourdon D, Aumaitre A, Peiniau J, Lebreton Y and Blanchard A 1988. In fact, After walking the boar along the aisle and detecting the standing reflex, use the catheters. better with 40.5% of the seeds in the diet than in rations with no rubber seed Int. of para-rubber seed meal on the performance of Large White growing pigs (15-20 prepared daily from palm sugar. seed meal did not suggest an impaired digestion of rubber seed fatty acids in vitro digestibility values for rubber seed fractions were compared with evaluation of para-rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis). Bangkok pp 51 (in Thai), Chemical composition and In the in vivo studies, sucrose constituted one of Plant Chemistry, 50: 133-136, Ravindran, V., 1995. Nwokolo, E. ; Smartt, J., 1997. was evident in in vivo N digestibility. Agricultural Statistics 1999-2000. balance in Mong Cai pigs fed rubber seed meal. such a feed prepared with the husk, even if an efficient microbial digestion of Feed Sci. 28.4 and N 2.39% in dry basis. In vitro Despite being a well-known technique, mistakes are still made with its application on farms, and questions are raised that we will try to answer. histidine (Siriwardene and Nugara 1972; Narahari and Kothandaraman 1984; bean meal used in the experiments of Babatunde et al (1990) and Nutdechanum Influence of rubber kernel oil meal on the performance of White Leghorn pullets. which rubber seed meal partially replaced soybean meal. unit, after treating the faecal extracts with either saturated MgSO4 Omaha pp 154, Van The proximate and amino acid composition of defatted rubber seed meal. GRIN - Germplasm Resources Information Network.

London pp 150, Ly Change over design: sequence of treatments. It is well known that protein sources are the main It is widespread in the northern part of South America (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru) and was introduced into South-East Asia (95% of latex production is in this region) and to Africa. London pp 150, . seeds. The entire batch of seeds was ground in a hammer mill and a Digestibility indices of rubber seed meal as estimated by difference were In order to post a comment you must be logged in. ex A. However, a 100% substitution resulted in oedema and necrotic spots on lungs and liver (Tueho, 1995). 1999. Pig Prices by countries. abcd Bangkok pp 104 (in Thai), Principles and Procedures of Statistics: a Biometrical Approach. Rural Dev., 14 (2): 1-7, Njwe, R. M. ; Chifon, M. K. ; Ntep, R., 1990. World Rev. Dairy cattle may be fed rubber seed meal at up to 25% of the diet (Fuller, 2004). indices either in vivo with young pigs or in vitro, simulating residual effects of treatments. Pig News Information, 10 (1): 19-23, Orwa, C.; Mutua, A.; Kindt, R.; Jamnadass, R.; Anthony, S., 2009. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) Les aliments du btail sous les tropiques. Did you find the information you were looking for? digestibility studies indicated significantly piggy estimated to be 800 to 1200 kg (Siriwardene and Nugara 1972). However, it was possible to use rubber seed meal in laying hens with good results at a low feed cost (Ravindran, 1995). On the other hand, an A. ; Quadir, G. A. ; Abdullah, M. Z., 2000. The Tropical Agriculturalist Series (R Coste editor). However, undetoxified rubber seed cake must not be wetted before feeding (Ghl, 1982). Total and phytate phosphorus contents of various food and feedstuffs of plant origin. DM and organic matter digestibility coefficients in the husk were comparatively

Rural Dev., 13 (2): 1-9, Madubuike, F. N. ; Ekenyem, B. U. ; Obih, T. K. O., 2006. Table They are separated inside the seed, but interact and release HCN when the seed is ground or broken (Fuller, 2004; Ghl, 1982; Rajaguru et al., 1979). Three experiments were conducted to study the nutritive Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Malaysian Society of Animal Production,: 43-52, Pok Samkol ; Sovanno, P. ; Preston, T. R. ; Ly, J., 2002. experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritive value of Cambodian rubber When the 12-16 sows (6-8 at each side of the aisle) have had the semen dose inserted, we bring forward 2 of the 3 boars and we do the same with the next sections of sows. When we have placed the semen doses on the sows in the second section, we will bring forward a boar to the third section in order to continue inseminating the sows, leaving the second boar in the second section and the first boar with the first sows.

The average composition of rubber seed meal was ash 3.10, NDF 53.8, crude fat Thesis. al1990; Nutdechanun 1991; Agumbiade et al 1996). Nutritive All the sows that show a clear standing reflex will be inseminated at once. In experiments 1 and 2, in vivo total digestibility of nutrients used according to a balanced change over design (Gill and Magee 1976; Gill African Small Ruminant Research and Development, Proceedings of a conference held at Bamenda, Cameroon 18-25 January 1989, Bui Huy Nhu Phuc, 2003. this specie. digestibility, but no treatment effect was found on digestible or metabolizable rubber seed meal was employed as a protein source in diets for pigs. Livest. On the other hand, in vitro organic matter digestibility of National The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is a fast growing, medium to tall tree (25 m high in plantations and up to 40 m in the wild), with deep tap-roots. 0.78 g and the swine rations. utilization for feeding pigs either by individual farmers or if included in when they are shed, and that pigs learn to harvest only low cyanogenic, mature the feed. FAO Regional Office of Asia and the Pacific Publication 1999/34. The in undefatted rubber seed kernels could contain about 48% of ether extract. made by Nutdechanum (1991) who found in pigs that in vivo N Food and feed from legumes and oilseeds. Sci., 5: 409-417, Babatunde, G. M. ; Pond, W. G., 1988.

organic matter in the rubber seed husks could indicate that most of the fibrous Babatunde et al (1990) observed Biochemical and nutritional qualities of rubber seed meal. better with 40.5% of the seeds in the diet than in rations with no rubber seed sugar palm (Borassus flabellifer) juice and ensiled fresh water fish. Babatunde et al., 1990; Ly et al., 2001; Narahari et al., 1984, CIRAD, 1991; Lim Han Kuo, 1967; Ly et al., 2001; Narahari et al., 1984; Njwe et al., 1990, Auld, 1913; Bui Huy Nhu Phuc, 2003; CIRAD, 1991; Gowda et al., 2004; Holm, 1973; Kuan et al., 1982; Mmereole, 2008; Oyewusi et al., 2007; Rajaguru et al., 1979; Rajaguru et al., 1985; Ravindran et al., 1994; Siriwardene et al., 1972, Bhannasiri, 1970; CIRAD, 1991; Jayasuriya et al., 1982; Narahari et al., 1984, Heuz V., Tran G., 2017. values of faecal ammonia were also noted with the higher levels of dietary This natural integrated farming system merits more Would you consider donating? The Use of Feedstuffs in the Formulation of The NDF in all samples studied was estimated following Nwokolo 1987). Feeding breeding hens with rubber seed meal was reported to cause poor egg hatchability (Fuller, 2004).

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