The primary flight controls are a force-sensitive side-stick controller and a pair of throttles.  The F-22 CTF and 412th Aerospace Medicine Squadron eventually determined that breathing restrictions were the root cause.
"F-22 Flew to Drone's Rescue off Iran Coast", "Raptor 4007 starts testing Inc 3.2A upgrade on its 1000th sortie", "Edwards F-22 Raptor performs aerial refueling using synthetic fuel. The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is an American single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force (USAF). , Compared to previous stealth designs like the F-117, the F-22 is less reliant on RAM, which are maintenance-intensive and susceptible to adverse weather conditions. Avionics development was marked by extensive testing and prototyping and supported by ground and flying laboratories. The short takeoff and landing (STOL) requirement was relaxed to delete thrust-reversers, saving substantial weight. The CWB also had the added benefit of expanding the Silent Eagles internal carrying capacity by four air-to-air missiles. The accident review board ruled Haney was to blame, as he did not react properly to engage the emergency oxygen system. The integrated nature of avionics has also made upgrades challenging; an OMS processor was eventually added to facilitate future upgrades. The tail of the aircraft was altered to create the F-15SE.
 The press speculated that the Lockheed team's design was also more adaptable to the U.S. Navy's Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF),[N 2] but by fiscal year (FY) 1992, the Navy had abandoned NATF. Rafale Dogfights Eurofighter Typhoon Over The Mediterranean; Which Fighter Jet Will Emerge Dominant.  The main bay is split along the centerline and can accommodate six LAU-142/A launchers for beyond-visual-range missiles and each side bay has an LAU-141/A launcher for short-range missiles. Production for operational squadrons consisted of 74 Block 10/20 training aircraft and 112 Block 30/35 combat aircraft; one of the Block 30 aircraft is dedicated to flight sciences at Edwards Air Force Base. F-22s were restricted to flying below 25,000 feet, then grounded during the investigation. The goal was for the type to be able to set up and engage in combat within 24 hours. Concurrently, Pratt & Whitney and General Electric were awarded contracts to develop the YF119 and YF120 engines respectively for the ATF engine competition. Attrition reserve aircraft numbers are limited due to the small fleet size.
In fact, focusing on the potential of the F-15 aircraft, Boeing even converted the Eagle into a stealth version. Not a Pound for air-to-ground was the slogan during the F-15s development, and it worked. 105108. , The F-22's ability to operate close to the battlefield gives the aircraft threat detection and identification capability comparative with the RC-135 Rivet Joint, and the ability to function as a "mini-AWACS", though its radar is less powerful than those of dedicated platforms. 4005 completes successful first flight. Depending on the detected threat, the defensive systems can prompt the pilot to release countermeasures such as flares or chaff.
"A transitional year for military combat aircraft", "Federal Contract Opportunity for Raptor Helmet Mounted Display & Cueing System (RHMDCS)."
Jenkins, Dennis R., Tony Landis and Jay Miller. Subsequent EMD aircraft tested avionics, CNI, and observables, along with a Boeing 757 modified with F-22 mission systems to serve as the Flying Test Bed avionics laboratory. , Some Australian politicians and defense commentators proposed that Australia should attempt to purchase F-22s instead of the planned F-35s, citing the F-22's known capabilities and F-35's delays and developmental uncertainties. This year an F-15 from Barnes in Massachusetts, an F-35 from Vermonts Green Mountain Boys and a tanker plane from Pease in New Hampshire. ", "Technologies for Future Precision Strike Missile Systems Missile/Aircraft Integration. Lockheed then teamed with Boeing and General Dynamics while Northrop teamed with McDonnell Douglas, and the two contractor teams undertook a 50-month Dem/Val phase, culminating in the flight test of two technology demonstrator prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23, respectively. 3.2A focuses on electronic warfare, communications and identification, while 3.2B includes geolocation improvements and a new stores management system that fully integrates the AIM-9X and AIM-120D; fleet releases began in 2013 and 2019, respectively. , In December 2005, the USAF announced that the F-22 had achieved Initial Operational Capability (IOC).  In 2011, an F-22 flew supersonic on a 50% mixture of biofuel derived from camelina. Over 35 years after the maiden flight of the F-15, Boeing debuted the F-15SE Silent Eagle in March 2009. , On 15 May 2020, an F-22 from Eglin Air Force Base crashed during a routine training mission shortly after takeoff; the pilot ejected safely.
Aronstein, David C. and Michael J. Hirschberg.  Production tooling and associated documentation were subsequently stored at the Sierra Army Depot to support the fleet life cycle.  Effectively maintaining the stealth features can decrease the F-22's mission capable rate to 6270%.  The radio frequency receivers of the electronic support measures (ESM) system give the aircraft the ability to perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) tasks. Copyright 2021.  Data can be transferred to other aircraft through a BACN or via Link 16 using the MIDS-J radio. ", "Is The Joint Strike Fighter Right For Australia? ", "Military Avionics Systems", Ian Moir and Allan Seabridge, Wiley, pp. For example, despite possessing the F-35I, the Israel Air Force is reportedly seeking the advanced version of the F-15 Eagle from the United States. F-22s from Lot 5 and on are equipped with the APG-77(V)1, which provides air-to-ground functionality through synthetic aperture radar mapping and various strike modes. The combat-coded fleet consist of 123 primary and 20 reserve airframes, while several Block 30 aircraft are devoted to operational testing and tactics development at Nellis AFB. , On 16 November 2010, an F-22 from Elmendorf AFB crashed, killing the pilot, Captain Jeffrey Haney. The shapes of the wing and stabilator trailing edges were refined to improve aerodynamics, strength, and stealth characteristics.
"Despite investigation, safety concerns linger on F-22.". Govindasamy, Siva. Recently, a batch of F-15C and F-15D fighter planes from the United States Air Force arrived in Poland recently on a mission to improve NATOs collective defense posture and assist the regions permanent Baltic Air Policing (BAP) mission. Its range (250+ nmi) exceeds the radar's and can cue radar emissions to be confined to a narrow beam (down to 2 by 2 in azimuth and elevation) to increase stealth. Funding for this program was halted in 2000.  It is the first operational aircraft to combine supercruise, supermaneuverability, stealth, and sensor fusion in a single weapons platform.  Customers for U.S. fighters are acquiring earlier designs such as the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon or the newer F-35 Lightning II, which contains technology from the F-22 but was designed to be cheaper, more flexible, and available for export.  Issues with the F-22's reliability and availability also raised concerns.  These strikes notwithstanding, the F-22's main role in the operation was gathering intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance.  Other EMD F-22s have been used for testing upgrades and as maintenance trainers. While this aircraft has seen several upgrades over the years, there was one variant that could have trumped even the F-22 Raptor, touted as the worlds most powerful air superiority fighter. The use of internal weapons bays permits the aircraft to maintain comparatively higher performance over most other combat-configured fighters due to a lack of parasitic drag from external stores. In aerial combat, it has a staggering 100 confirmed kills and zero losses. The pilot ejected safely and no injuries were reported on the ground. It is indeed one of the most successful and combat-proven jets in the American and Israeli arsenal. The aircraft still remains in great demand in countries around the world, even the ones that have already purchased the F-35. , Russian and Chinese fighter developments have fueled concern, and in 2009, General John Corley, head of Air Combat Command, stated that a fleet of 187 F-22s would be inadequate, but Secretary Gates dismissed General Corley's concern.  In the exercises, the F-22-led Blue Force amassed 241 kills against two losses in air-to-air combat, with neither "loss" being an F-22.
Code-named "Senior Sky", this air-superiority fighter program was influenced by emerging worldwide threats, including new developments in Soviet air defense systems and the proliferation of the Sukhoi Su-27 "Flanker"- and Mikoyan MiG-29 "Fulcrum"-class of fighter aircraft.
 The investigation revealed that a brief interruption in power during an engine shutdown prior to flight caused a flight-control system malfunction; consequently the aircraft design was corrected to avoid the problem.  Additionally, while faint or fleeting radar contacts make defenders aware that a stealth aircraft is present, reliably vectoring interception to attack the aircraft is much more challenging. ", Cox, Bob.
By 1997, funding instability had further cut the total to 339, which was again reduced to 277 by 2003.
Figures include 6% routing factor, combat and 2 GBU-32 + 2 AIM-9 + 2 AIM-120. The improved AN/APG-77(V)1 radar was certified in March 2007 and airframes from production Lot 5 onward were fitted with this radar, which incorporates air-to-ground modes.  To address oxygen deprivation issues, F-22s were fitted with an automatic backup oxygen system (ABOS) and modified life support system starting in 2012.  The aircraft's flat thrust-vectoring nozzles reduce infrared emissions of the exhaust plume to mitigate the threat of infrared homing ("heat seeking") surface-to-air or air-to-air missiles.  A stealthy ordnance pod and pylon was being developed to carry additional weapons in the mid-2000s. As of June 2020, it has 186 aircraft in its inventory. "Dogfight Over F-22 Reveals DoD Schisms". , The Japanese government also showed interest in the F-22 for its Replacement-Fighter program. , The FB-22 was a proposed medium-range supersonic stealth bomber for the USAF. In 2009, the program was cut to 187 operational aircraft due to high costs, a lack of air-to-air missions due to the focus on counterinsurgency operations at the time of production, a ban on exports, and development of the more affordable and versatile F-35,[N 1] with the last F-22 delivered in 2012.  Raptor 4001 was retired from flight testing in 2000 and subsequently sent to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base for survivability testing, including live fire testing and battle damage repair training.
The F-35 and F-15EX planes, according to Air Force Magazine, cost roughly $80 million each. It may also see itself deployed as a possible standoff platform in conjunction with the F-22 Raptor, as previously stated by the EurAsian Times. The F-22 was also designed to have decreased radio emissions, infrared signature and acoustic signature as well as reduced visibility to the naked eye. A conformal weapons bay (CWB) and fuel tanks were among them, according to Business Insider. 195 (8 test and 187 operational aircraft), Mach 1.21, 800 knots (921mph; 1,482km/h) at sea level, 590 nmi (679 mi, 1,093km) clean subsonic, 4 under-wing pylon stations can be fitted to carry weapons, each with a capacity of 5,000 lb (2,270 kg), MJU-39/40 flares for protection against IR missiles. , Although designed for air-to-air missiles, the main bay can replace four launchers with two bomb racks that can each carry one 1,000lb (450kg) or four 250lb (110kg) bombs for a total of 2,000 pounds (910kg) of air-to-surface ordnance.  While the F-22's exact RCS is classified, in 2009 Lockheed Martin released information indicating that from certain angles the airplane has an RCS of 0.0001 m2 or 40 dBsm equivalent to the radar reflection of a "steel marble"; the aircraft can mount a Luneburg lens reflector to mask its RCS. ", "AP Impact: Air Force insiders foresaw F-22 woes.  The canopy's dimensions are approximately 140inches long, 45inches wide, and 27inches tall (355cm 115cm 69cm) and weighs 360 pounds. In 1981, the U.S. Air Force identified a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon.  The F-22 lost influential supporters in 2008 after the forced resignations of Secretary of the Air Force Michael Wynne and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force General T. Michael Moseley. More durable stealth coatings derived from the F-35's are being considered for future upgrades in order to reduce maintenance efforts. ", "Bird of Prey: Bulldogs accept delivery of last Raptor", "Airpower, led by the F-22, can 'kick the door down' for the other forces. Two 3in 4in (7.6cm 10.2cm) up-front displays located around the ICP are used to display integrated caution advisory/warning (ICAW) data, CNI data and also serve as the stand-by flight instrumentation group and fuel quantity indicator. The primary air-to-air missiles are the AIM-120 AMRAAM and the AIM-9 Sidewinder, with planned integration of the AIM-260 JATM.
, The F-22's aerodynamics, relaxed stability, and powerful thrust-vectoring engines give it excellent maneuverability and energy potential across its flight envelope.  The F-22 has also been used to test technology for its eventual successor from the Next Generation Air Dominance (NGAD) program; some advances are expected to be applied to the F-22 as well. During Exercise Red Flag 071 in February 2007, 14 F-22s of the 94th FS supported Blue Force strikes and undertook close air support sorties. , The F-22's software has some 1.7million lines of code, the majority involving processing radar data. ", "A Solution to America's F-35 Nightmare: Why Not Build More F-22s? The U.S. Air Force initially reported that the 17 F-22 Raptors might have been significantly damaged or destroyed, but damage to the aircraft was later found not to be major although their hangars were severely damaged and the base was rendered inoperable; the aircraft were all flying a month later. "Reports: DOD deploys F-22 fighters near Iranian border". , The aircraft has an integrated avionics system where through sensor fusion, data from all onboard sensor systems as well as off-board inputs are filtered and processed into a combined tactical picture, thus enhancing the pilot's situational awareness and reducing workload. The effects of Rayleigh scattering and resonance mean that low-frequency radars such as weather radars and early-warning radars are more likely to detect the F-22 due to its physical size. ", "Air Force Confident F-22 Oxygen Riddle Solved", "USAF Still Reviewing Oxygen Concentration Levels For F-22 Cockpit. ", "F-22 Raptor hits Mach 1.5 on camelina-based biofuel.". , The F-22 achieved Full Operational Capability (FOC) in December 2007, when General John Corley of Air Combat Command (ACC) officially declared the F-22s of the integrated active duty 1st Fighter Wing and Virginia Air National Guard 192d Fighter Wing fully operational.  Four F-22s were deployed to Spangdahlem Air Base in Germany in August, and Lask Air Base in Poland and Amari Air Base in Estonia in September 2015, to train with NATO allies. As of today, F-35 is the most popular stealth fighter in the world that has seen a consistent trajectory in its sales over the years, according to Business Insider.
The investigation found no design issues.  During Dem/Val, the SPO used the results of performance and cost trade studies conducted by contractor teams to adjust ATF requirements and delete ones that were significant weight and cost drivers while having marginal value.  Increasing weight during development caused slight reductions in range and maneuver performance. "Israel in talks with USA over F-22 orders".
The F-15SE was to be equipped with air-to-air missiles like the AIM-120 and AIM-9, as well as air-to-ground weapons like JDAM and globules admire. This is because for every order of magnitude (factor of ten) RCS decreases by, detection range decreases only by 43.7 percent. Atelectasis is the collapse or closure of a lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange. The aircraft returned to Hawaii by following tanker aircraft. Until the creation of the F-22 Raptor, the F-15 was the best dogfighter in the world. , The first two F-22s built were EMD aircraft in the Block 1.0[N 4] configuration for initial flight testing and envelope expansion, while the third was a Block 2.0 aircraft built to represent the internal structure of production airframes and enabled it to test full flight loads.  Block 20 aircraft from Lot 3 onward were upgraded to Block 30 standards, increasing the Block 30/35 fleet to 149 aircraft while 37 remain in the Block 20 configuration. The YF-22 had its maiden flight on 29 September 1990 and in-flight tests achieved up to Mach 1.58 in supercruise. The prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, built most of the F-22's airframe and weapons systems and conducted final assembly, while Boeing provided the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems. Thus a 1 m2 RCS will not be detected at one-tenth the distance that a 10 m2 RCS will, but something more like three-fifths the distance. The F-22 has a Signature Assessment System which delivers warnings when the radar signature is degraded and necessitates repair. The incremental cost for an additional F-22 was estimated at $138million in 2009.  Modifications to the life-support equipment and oxygen system allowed the distance and altitude flight restrictions to be lifted on 4 April 2013. Among American jets, the F-15EX is regarded as one of the best dogfighters.  The first F-22, an EMD aircraft with tail number 4001, was unveiled at Marietta, Georgia, on 9 April 1997 and first flew on 7 September 1997.  However, early coatings still experienced issues with rain and moisture when F-22s were initially posted to Guam in 2009. ", "H.R.2647 National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (see Sections 1250 & 8056. FA8611-WPAFB-HMD, AFLCMC Wright Patterson AFB, Klass, Philip J. , On 25 March 2009, an EMD F-22 crashed 35 miles (56km) northeast of Edwards AFB during a test flight, resulting in the death of Lockheed Martin test pilot David P. Cooley. The Multifunctional Information Distribution System Joint Tactical Radio System (MIDS JTRS) radio for Link 16 traffic was installed starting in 2022, and the airplane can also use the Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) as a two-way communication gateway. It is an enhanced version of the F-15E Strike Eagle variant.
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