D. Harper. byJulie Coleman and Christian Kay.
But English speakers heard cock (rooster) and roach, which did not yet refer to insects as it commonly does today, but to a kind of fish. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. The original meaning of fast 'fixed in place' still exists, as in the compounded words steadfast and colorfast, but by itself mainly in frozen expressions such as stuck fast, hold fast, and play fast and loose. What has a groom got to do with getting married? folk etymology (countable and uncountable, plural folk etymologies), Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary, It is not improbable that, in some locality where tram-roads were a novelty, their name may have been associated in, SURCEASE owes its form and meaning to a remarkable, A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, , , , https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=folk_etymology&oldid=67570324, Requests for review of Icelandic translations, Requests for review of Serbo-Croatian translations, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A modification of a word or its spelling resulting from a misunderstanding of its etymology, as with. This page was last edited on 14 October 2019, at 04:44. However, gome died out during the Middle English period. "Overview of Folk Etymology." conjugation, sheer, expenditure, etymology, accident, accident. But language, much to the chagrin of us all, is not logical. Delivered to your inbox! Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary, A modification of a word resulting from a misunderstanding, https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Citations:folk_etymology&oldid=55222657, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, However, it [etymology] would not have developed into such an interesting discipline without the linguistic phenomenon of, Where the remodelling of a word involves the replacement of one or more of its syllables by another word with which it is associated semantically this is normally referred to not as contamination but as. But bridegroom never meant anything more than 'bride's man. This was an allusion to a fourteenth-century French morality poem, Roman de Fauvel, about a chestnut-colored horse who corrupts men through duplicity. It is attested from the eleventh century, though its ultimate origin is uncertain. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the medieval image at the root of hangnail is a much more painful one than its respelled descendant.
By the late Middle Ages its meaning was extended to the holder of a university degree inferior to master or doctor. :157 Similarly, the word baceler or bacheler (related to modern English bachelor) referred to a junior knight. ThoughtCo, Feb. 16, 2021, thoughtco.com/what-is-folk-etymology-1690865. The English language's most successful export is a joke. This also is the sense in the legal phrase The People vs., in U.S. cases of prosecution under certain laws (1801). There are many examples of words borrowed from foreign languages, and subsequently changed by folk etymology. . Sense of "Some unspecified persons" is from c. 1300. For incorrect popular etymologies, see, "The meaning and origin of the expression: 'Curry favour', https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Folk_etymology&oldid=1084191145, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopdia Britannica, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 23 April 2022, at 02:07. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-folk-etymology-1690865.
https://www.etymonline.com/word/folk (accessed $(datetime)). It is based on the political sense of the word, "the whole body of enfranchised citizens (considered as the sovereign source of government power," attested from 1640s.
The Middle English form was bridgome, which goes back to Old English brydguma, from 'bride' + guma 'man.' The meaning "members of one's family, tribe, or clan" is from late 14c. More recent translations of this passage make the meaning more clear, if less poetic: I will make him a helper suitable for him, but it seems that the combination of a frequently read Biblical quotation with an infrequently heard adjectival use of meet was the root of the noun helpmeet meaning either a companion and helper or wife, which came into English in the 1600s. The word was adopted after c. 1920 by Communist totalitarian states, according to their opponents to give a spurious sense of populism to their governments. English speakers altered the Italian to lutestring, which conveyed the both the fineness of the material and the value of aesthetic beauty important to both music and fashion.
 The phrase forlorn hope originally meant "storming party, body of skirmishers" from Dutch verloren hoop "lost troop".
Accessed $(datetimeMla). Both versions of the name are in current use; individuals sometimes express strong opinions concerning which version is correct.. One of the great philosophical debates of our time can be rendered moot once and for all by etymology: woodchucks were not named for a putative ability to toss lumber. Nordquist, Richard. But confusion with English hope has given the term an additional meaning of "hopeless venture". This is frequently seen in relation to loanwords or words that have become archaic or obsolete. people in general (often used in the plural), a social division of (usually preliterate) people, the traditional and typically anonymous music that is an expression of the life of people in a community. , A seemingly plausible but no less speculative etymology accounts for the form of Welsh rarebit, a dish made of cheese and toasted bread. Compare also Old English folclar ("popular instruction; homily") and West Frisian folkloare (folklore). A. Schmeller's Die Mundarten Bayerns grammatisch dargestellt). . The cuca- of cucaracha is the Spanish word for butterfly caterpillar, which presumably the bug resembles in some way. The word island derives from Old English igland. in Anglo-French); the meaning "common people, masses" (as distinguished from the nobility) is from late 13c.
Other types of language change caused by reanalysis of the structure of a word include rebracketing and back-formation.
The native word that was phonetically recast into English is likely a word related to the Narragansett ockqutchaun, the Ojibwa word otchig (meaning fisher or marten), or the Cree word otcheck.
Lutestring conveys an unusually specific image to mean a plain glossy silk that was used to make womens dresses and ribbons in the 17th century. , Several words in Medieval Latin were subject to folk etymology. According to Watkins, from PIE *ple-go-, suffixed form of root *pele- (1) "to fill," which would make it cognate with Greek plethos "people, multitude," and Latin plebes, "the populace, the common people." , Replacement of an unfamiliar linguistic form by a more familiar one, This article is about a technical term in linguistics. Online Etymology Dictionary.
Class I is by far the more common type of folk etymology.  The songbird wheatear or white-ear is a back-formation from Middle English whit-ers 'white arse', referring to the prominent white rump found in most species. This syllable was heard and repeated as -fish frequently enough to alter the word toward the more English-sounding name.  Some cases of back-formation are based on folk etymology.
'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? "Class I contains folk-etymologies where some change has occurred, either in meaning or form, or both. Random House, 2008), "Historically, female, from Middle English femelle (from Old French femelle, a diminutive form of Latin femina 'woman/female'), is unrelated to male (Old French male/masle; Latin masculus ('little' man/male); but Middle English femelle was clearly remodeled into female based on the association with male (approximately the 14th century) (OED). The true explanation is more prosaic. From (nv) + (dn, water). Several decades later, helpmate appeared as a more logical synonym, since mate can mean either friend or a member of a married couple.. , Sometimes imaginative stories are created to account for the link between a borrowed word and its popularly assumed sources. Crawfish is a variant of crayfish that dates to the 1600s.  A similar reanalysis caused sandblind, from Old English smblind "half-blind" with a once-common prefix sm- "semi-", to be respelled as though it is related to sand. Examples in English include crayfish or crawfish, which are not historically related to fish but come from Middle English crevis, cognate with French crevisse. Hangnail would seem to be a perfectly self-evident compound word: after all, it describes that painful little stem of skin that seems to hang from the bed of your fingernail, right? An Etruscan origin also has been proposed. :486, The Dutch word for 'hammock' is hangmat. . Kronenfeld identify two main groups of folk etymology, which they call Class I and Class II. Superseded in most senses by people. Here are some of the words we're currently looking at for a spot in the dictionary. When a word or other form becomes obsolete, words or phrases containing the obsolete portion may be reanalyzed and changed. Folk etymology involves a change in the form or pronunciation of a word or phrase resulting from a mistaken assumption about its composition or meaning. :449, The phrase curry favour, meaning to flatter, comes from Middle English curry favel, "groom a chestnut horse". G. Runblad and D.B.  Rebracketing in the opposite direction saw the Middle English a napron become an apron. Neither of the two parts of hangnail are what they seem. Harper, Douglas. In rebracketing, users of the language change misinterpret or reinterpret the location of a boundary between words or morphemes. It was borrowed from Spanish hamaca (ultimately from Arawak amca) and altered by comparison with hangen and mat, 'hanging mat'. The word shamefaced was originally shamefast. Etymology of folk.  The variant spelling of licorice as liquorice comes from the supposition that it has something to do with liquid. . The ld alteration is due to confusion with Latin donum 'gift'. c. 1300, peple, "humans, persons in general, men and women," from Anglo-French peple, people, Old French pople, peupel "people, population, crowd; mankind, humanity," from Latin populus "a people, nation; body of citizens; a multitude, crowd, throng," a word of unknown origin.