L = the distance in feet between the outer axles of any group of two or more consecutive axles. Maximum weight (W) = 51,000 pounds, which is more than the actual weight of 46,000 pounds. Bridge Formula calculations yield a series of weights (Bridge Table, pages 5-6). Privacy Policy, United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration, Permissible Gross Loads for Vehicles in Regular Operation.

The truck shown in Figure 8 satisfies the single-axle weight limit (12,000 pounds are less than 20,000 pounds), the tandem-axle limit (30,000 pounds are less than 34,000 pounds) and the gross-weight limit (57,000 pounds are less than 80,000 pounds). distribution weight ntea fundamentals course purchase today

Federal Highway Administration Without this exception, the Bridge Formula would allow an actual weight of only 66,000 to 67,500 pounds on tandems spaced 36 to 38 feet apart.

127 and 23 C.F.R. Here the single axle (number 1) does not exceed 20,000 pounds, tandems 2-3 and 4-5 do not exceed 34,000 pounds each, and the gross weight does not exceed 80,000 pounds. With a few exceptions noted in this pamphlet, the Bridge Formula establishes the maximum weight any set of axles on a motor vehicle may carry on the Interstate highway system. However, interior combinations of axles, such as the "tractor bridge" (axles 1, 2, and 3) and "trailer bridge" (axles 2, 3, 4, and 5), must also comply with weights computed by the Bridge Formula (Figure 3). 3 0 obj FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement. Three definitions are needed to use the Bridge Formula correctly. You may need the Adobe Reader to view the PDFs on this page. stream ) `HCn5YD!/?~cS4I%,eKVz_|8$Ubvx]8H]A}cvxH

The first Bridge Formula combination is checked as follows: Actual weight = 12,000 + 17,000 + 17,000 = 46,000 pounds. In the event of a dispute, the statute and regulation take precedence with respect to maximum allowable Federal Bridge Formula weights. ops.fhwa.dot.gov. Gross vehicle weight is limited to 80,000 pounds (23 U.S.C. As a result, the axle group that includes the entire trucksometimes called the "outer bridge" groupmust comply with the Bridge Formula. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. 127). To correct the situation, some load must be removed from the vehicle or the axle spacing (35 feet) must be increased. Permissible Gross Loads for Vehicles in Regular Operation1. Actual weight = 15,000 + 15,000 + 15,000 = 45,000 pounds. As trucks grew heavier in the 1950s and 1960, something had to be done to protect bridges. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. The vehicle with weights and axle dimensions shown in Figure 4 is used to illustrate a Bridge Formula check. Figure 3 shows the most common vehicle checked for compliance with weight limit requirements. Maximum weight (W) = 80,000 pounds (Bridge Table for "L" of 51 feet and "N" of 5 axles). This pamphlet describes the Bridge Formula, why it was established, and how it is used. endobj weight limits steer axles formula oversize loadings shacman 26m Before checking for compliance with the Bridge Formula, a vehicle's single-axle, tandem-axle, and gross weight should be checked. Although the Bridge Formula applies to each combination of two or more axles, experience shows that axle combinations 1 through 3, 1 through 5, and 2 through 5 are critical and must be checked. US DOT Home| FHWA Home| Operations Home| Maximum weight (W) = 65,500 pounds (Bridge Table for "L" of 35 feet and "N" of 4 axles). It is important to note that the single-axle weight limit replaces the Bridge Formula weight limit on axles not more than 40 inches apart, and the tandem-axle weight limit replaces the Bridge Formula weight limit for axles over 40 but not more than 96 inches apart. Office of Operations % With these restrictions satisfied, a check is done for Bridge Formula requirements, axles 1 through 4. This is a violation because the actual weight exceeds the weight allowed by the Bridge Formula. The weight on various axle configurations must be checked to determine compliance with the Bridge Formula. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Contact Information: Operations Feedback at OperationsFeedback@dot.gov, U.S. Department of Transportation Thus, the Bridge Formula requirement is satisfied. For example, a five-axle tractor-semitrailer combination may carry 34,000 pounds both on the tractor tandem (axles 2 and 3) and the trailer tandem (axles 4 and 5), provided axles 2 and 5 are spaced at least 36 feet apart. 1 0 obj <>>> endobj If these combinations are found to be satisfactory, then all of the others on this type of vehicle normally will be satisfactory. Compliance with Bridge Formula weight limits is determined by using the following formula: W = the overall gross weight on any group of two or more consecutive axles to the nearest 500 pounds. x]Ys9~WtXUGjYX=PH+! Thus, these preliminary requirements are satisfied. 658 for purposes of illustration only. In addition to Bridge Formula weight limits, Federal law states that single axles are limited to 20,000 pounds, and axles spaced more than 40 inches and not more than 96 inches apart (tandem axles) are limited to 34,000 pounds. Previous editions of this guidance pamphlet are superseded and no longer valid. <> Washington, DC 20590 Therefore, this axle spacing is satisfactory. 127) includes one other exception to the Bridge Formula and the Bridge Tabletwo consecutive sets of tandem axles may carry 34,000 pounds each if the overall distance between the first and last axles of these tandems is 36 feet or more. The load must either be reduced, axles added, or spacing increased to comply with the Bridge Formula. Interstate System weight limits in some States may be higher than the figures noted above due to "grandfather" rights. In addition to the grandfather rights notes on page 3, Federal law (23 U.S.C. When the Interstate System axle and gross weight limits were adopted in 1956, and amended in 1975, States were allowed to keep or "grandfather" weight limits that were higher. Maximum weight (W) = 57,500 pounds (Bridge Table for "L" of 23 feet and "N" of 4 axles).

Congress enacted the Bridge Formula in 1975 to limit the weight-to-length ratio of a vehicle crossing a bridge. This is accomplished either by spreading weight over additional axles or by increasing the distance between axles. Actual weight = 12,000 + 15,000 + 15,000 + 15,000 = 57,000 pounds. The procedure described above could be used to check any axle combinations, but several closely spaced axles usually produce the most critical situation. This guidance paraphrases provisions of 23 U.S.C. Bridges on the Interstate System highways are designed to support a wide variety of vehicles and their expected loads. This same number (51,000 pounds) could have been obtained from the Bridge Table by reading down the left side to L = 20 and across to the right where N = 3. Axle spacing is as important as axle weight in designing bridges. At 97 inches apart, for example, two axles may carry 38,000 pounds (Figure 2A) and three axles may carry 42,000 pounds, as shown in Figure 2B. In Figure 1A, the stress on bridge members as a longer truck rolls across is much less than that caused by a short vehicle as shown in Figure 1B, even though both trucks have the same total weight and individual axle weights. Printable version [PDF 3.2 MB] Actual weight = 17,000 + 17,000 + 17,000 + 17,000 = 68,000 pounds. <> 4 0 obj Federal law states that any two or more consecutive axles may not exceed the weight computed by the Bridge Formula even though single axles, tandem axles, and gross weight are within legal limits. 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) revises its guidance pamphlet Federal Bridge Formula Weights (May 2015). This is a violation because the actual weight exceeds the weight allowed by the Bridge Formula. N = the number of axles in the group under consideration. Maximum weight (W) = 42,500 pounds (Bridge Table for "L" of 9 feet and "N" of 3 axles. %PDF-1.5 The solution was to link allowable weights to the number and spacing of axles. 2 0 obj endobj



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