details of the childs early life (e.g., periods of separation). Affectionless psychopathy is an inability to show affection or concern for others. Lorenz showed that attachment was innate (in young ducklings) and therefore has a survival value. Ablex. Symposium on the contribution of current theories to an understanding of child development. Schore, A. N. (2000). Bowlby, J. He suggested that attachment also serves to keep the infant close to the mother, thus improving the child's chances of survival. John Bowlby, working alongside James Robertson (1952) observed that children experienced intense distress when separated from their mothers. A two-year-old goes to hospital. In the book, he suggested that Bowlby may have oversimplified the concept of maternal deprivation. Patterns of attachment in two-and three-year-olds in normal families and families with parental depression. Bowlby believed that the earliest bonds formed by children with their caregivers have a tremendous impact that continues throughout life. The monkey's never formed an attachment (privation) and as such grew up to be aggressive and had problems interacting with other monkeys. According to Schaffer, H. R. & Emerson, P. E. (1964). inborn) need to attach to one main attachment figure. Bowlby used the term 'maternal deprivation' to refer to separation from an attached figure, loss of an attached figure and failure to develop an attachment to any figure. : 6s P*?R 2:JZ.

Elsevier. He showed that monkeys reared in isolation from their mother suffered emotional and social problems in older age. Bowlby, J. (1951).

According to the Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis, breaking the maternal bond with the child during the early stages of its life is likely to have serious effects on its intellectual, social and emotional development. Child development, 884-893. An infant may therefore have a primary monotropy attachment to its mother, and below her the hierarchy of attachments my include its father, siblings, grandparents, etc. To test his hypothesis, he studied 44 adolescent juvenile delinquents in a child guidance clinic. The development of social attachments in infancy. @f,|0l+cc+ $% (1953). Are the effects of maternal deprivation as dire as Bowlby suggested? British psychologist John Bowlby was the first attachment theorist. The infant learns that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world.

Bowlby's Maternal Deprivation is, however, supported by Harlow's (1958) research with monkeys. Child care and the growth of love. The Effects of Childcare on Social Development, The Origins of Attachment Theory: Bowlby and Ainsworth. attachment bowlby theory secure styles psychology between freud quotes parent monkey characteristics theories ainsworth entre relaciones las attachment2 healthy brain Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 29 (3), serial number 94. (1952). Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16(3), 232. There are implications arising from Bowlbys work. bowlby

of the Royal Society of Medicine, 46, 425427.

Attachment theory focuses on relationships and bonds (particularly long-term) between people, including those between a parent and child and between romantic partners. Harlow, H. F., & Zimmermann, R. R. (1958). Mourning or early inadequate care? These children also tend to be more independent, perform better in school, have successful social relationships, and experience less depression and anxiety. Children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently display attachment problems, possibly due to early abuse, neglect, or trauma. 1. On arrival at the clinic, each child had their IQ tested by a psychologist who also assessed the childs 'S_J7=7;cL`.qHh _ , Based on their observations, Schaffer and Emerson outlined four distinct phases of attachment, including: From birth to 3 months, infants do not show any particular attachment to a specific caregiver. Verywell Mind articles are reviewed by board-certified physicians and mental healthcare professionals. m: 2o@,#-C2D2s[(AsRWM@2p Attachment is an emotional bond with another person. P*Ude+!uM)39T&,kTku+wB$s.%m1Y@lL %N~x$Dpk@ Owg7K [)0V'(nz2?dwy$i.[IH endstream endobj 15 0 obj 2019 endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F3 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman-Bold /FirstChar 31 /LastChar 255 /Widths [ 778 250 333 555 500 500 1000 833 278 333 333 500 570 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 570 570 570 500 930 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 278 333 581 500 333 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 394 220 394 520 778 500 778 333 500 500 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 1000 778 778 778 778 333 333 500 500 350 500 1000 333 1000 389 333 722 778 778 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 220 500 333 747 300 500 570 333 747 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 540 250 333 300 330 500 750 750 750 500 722 722 722 722 722 722 1000 722 667 667 667 667 389 389 389 389 722 722 778 778 778 778 778 570 778 722 722 722 722 722 611 556 500 500 500 500 500 500 722 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 556 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 556 556 556 556 500 556 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRoman-Bold /Flags 16418 /FontBBox [ -250 -220 1224 920 ] /MissingWidth 780 /StemV 134 /StemH 134 /ItalicAngle 0 /CapHeight 920 /XHeight 644 /Ascent 920 /Descent 220 /Leading 180 /MaxWidth 1020 /AvgWidth 420 >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F1 8 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 20 0 R /Filter /LZWDecode >> stream Michael Rutter (1981) argued that if a child fails to develop an emotional bond, this is privation, whereas deprivation refers to the loss of or damage to an attachment. He also found evidence of anti-social behavior, affectionless psychopathy, and disorders of language, intellectual development and physical growth. revisited. Verywell Mind's content is for informational and educational purposes only. They studied 250 women who had lost mothers, through separation or death, before they were 17. So what determines successful attachment? Of these, 44 were juvenile thieves and had been referred to him because of their stealing.

These theories proposed that attachment was merely the result of the feeding relationship between the child and the caregiver. Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. The nature of love. `V0swH3b $ EVAV)*HR\1BZ;+P u x-5 9SCYO'RDQsPK,Zzbm(sAH2'T*'7ar ^p%B(>0anKPNH=9A;Q@NUDR3fE2oaB"e2G(1i FnfTk':)RJtmj=LRPgPp}DB>7CMu11 New York: Guilford Press. In the study, researchers observed children between the ages of 12 and 18 months as they responded to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mothers. Michael Rutter (1972) wrote a book called Maternal Deprivation Re-assessed. What Is Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED)? (1988). anxiety Researchers Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson analyzed the number of attachment relationships that infants form in a longitudinal study with 60 infants. Ainsworth MDS. Bowlby believes that this attachment is qualitatively different from any subsequent attachments. The determinant of attachment is not food but care and responsiveness.

Children adopted after the age of 6 months may have a higher risk of attachment problems.

(1987). Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. Bowlby, J. Attachment in social networks: Contributions to the Bowlby-Ainsworth attachment theory. Loss. Social and family relationships of exinstitutional adolescents. There are three main features of the internal working model: (1) a model of others as being trustworthy, (2) a model of the self as valuable, and (3) a model of the self as effective when interacting with others. Bowlby assumed that physical separation on its own could lead to deprivation but Rutter (1972) argues that it is the disruption of the attachment rather than the physical separation. Essentially, Bowlby (1988) suggested that the nature of monotropy (attachment conceptualized as being a vital and close bond with just one attachment figure) meant that a failure to initiate, or a breakdown of, the maternal attachment would lead to serious negative consequences, possibly including affectionless psychopathy. The infant's signals, such as crying and fussing, naturally attract theattention of the caregiverand the baby's positive responses encourage the caregiver to remain close. Children who are securely attached as infants tend to develop stronger self-esteem and better self-reliance as they grow older. Bowlby (1969) believed that attachment behaviors (such as proximity seeking) are instinctive and will be activated by any conditions that seem to threaten the achievement of proximity, such as separation, insecurity, and fear. 1.hbCp6 ./#6+#*+k+.cLN?0dPZz((p

Although Bowlby did not rule out the possibility of other attachment figures for a child, he did believe that there should be a primary bond which was much more important than any other (usually the mother). John Bowlby believed that the relationship between the infant and its mother during the first five years of life was most crucial to socialization. Maternal deprivation reassessed. The infant monkeys were placed in cages with two wire-monkey mothers. When a child experiences heightened arousal, he/she signals their caregiver. Attachments and other affectional bonds across the life cycle. In addition, such problems can be overcome later in the child's development, with the right kind of care. Around the age of three, these seem to become part of a childs personality and thus affects their understanding of the world and future interactions with others (Schore, 2000). Basic Books.

and infant disturbance (pp. 1990;58(1):141-61. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1990.tb00911.x, Ainsworth MD, Bell SM. Babies are born with the tendency to display certain innate behaviors (called social releasers) which help ensure proximity and contact with the mother or attachment figure (e.g., crying, smiling, crawling, etc.) (Eds.). Hodges, J., & Tizard, B. Attachment behaviors in both babies and their caregivers have evolved through natural selection. At this point, from about 7 to 11 months of age, infants show a strong attachment and preference for one specific individual. Bowlby conducted the psychiatric assessments himself and made J Pers. Int J Psychoanal. 1958;13(12):673-685. doi:10.1037/h0047884, Schaffer HR, Emerson PE. theory attachment bowlby john children child psychology babies critical adoptive biology beliefs hypothesis rhymes infancy period parents systems development 1969

(1957). Bowlbys maternal deprivation hypothesis suggests that continual disruption of the attachment between infant and primary caregiver could result in long term cognitive, social, and emotional difficulties for that infant. Bowlby viewed attachment as a product of evolutionary processes. While the behavioral theories of attachment suggested that attachment was a learned process, Bowlby and others proposed that children are born with an innate drive to form attachments with caregivers. Bowlby originally believed the effects to be permanent and irreversible. 61-82).

lack of guilt and inability to form meaningful and lasting relationships. Conclusion: Bowlby concluded that maternal separation/deprivation in the childs early life caused permanent

The implications of this are vast if this is true, should the primary caregiver leave their child in day care, while they continue to work? (2017, Febuary 05). The development of social attachments in infancy.

After approximately 9 months of age, children begin to form strong emotional bonds with other caregivers beyond the primary attachment figure. Such individuals act on impulse with little regard for the consequences of their actions. Attachment & Human Development, 2(1), 23-47. (1956). Bifulco, A., Harris, T., & Brown, G. W. (1992). A persons interaction with others is guided by memories and expectations from their internal model which influence and help evaluate their contact with others (Bretherton, & Munholland, 1999). `Kvavh!bN;fr O[*XU3>Mm"rIw;9L 0s^D^S8r20dAe)5UHncbR}I8-Tch &5PWK[k2m:~T}1-V4e{t[6>n@zy]||gHLhp.&-"yH6nk

From his survey of research on privation, Rutter proposed that it is likely to lead initially to clinging, dependent behavior, attention-seeking and indiscriminate friendliness, then as the child matures, an inability to keep rules, form lasting relationships, or feel guilt. A child has an innate (i.e. Rutter, M. (1979). The rate of depression was the highest in women whose mothers had died before the child reached the age of 6. 2019;18:1:22-38. doi:10.1080/15298868.2017.1353540. Bowlby J. Attachment and Loss. Van Ijzendoorn, & Tavecchio (1987) argue that a stable network of adults can provide adequate care and that this care may even have advantages over a system where a mother has to meet all a childs needs.

Bowlby used the term maternal deprivation to refer to the separation or loss of the mother as well as the failure to develop an attachment. Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall S.Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. 1970;41(1):49-67. doi:10.2307/1127388. (1989). nqZ,}-KL>@*4v,c^ k.z qPL@-J "R6 emotional damage. Parkes CM, Stevenson-Hinde J, Marris P, eds. Only By clicking Accept All Cookies, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts. Deprivation can be avoided if there is good emotional care after separation. In the control group only two had had such a separation. He believed that disruption of this primary relationship could lead to a higher incidence of juvenile delinquency, emotional difficulties, and antisocial behavior. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. 111). Bowlby, J. Later, researchers Main and Solomon (1986) added a fourth attachment style called disorganized-insecure attachment based on their own research. New York: Basic Books. Mothers are the exclusive carers in only a very small percentage of human societies; often there are a number of people involved in the care of children, such as relations and friends (Weisner, & Gallimore, 1977). Erlbaum. =0d S5A4J @ 8 This meant that Bowlby was asking the participants to look back and recall separations. In particular, Rutter distinguished between privation and deprivation. Harlow HF. These each have different effects, argued Rutter.

This concept of monotropy suggests that there is one relationship which is more important than all the rest. H. E. (1986). The child behaves in ways that elicits contact or proximity to the caregiver. Throughout history, children who maintained proximity to an attachment figure were more likely to receive comfort and protection, and therefore more likely to survive to adulthood. At the same time a social worker interviewed a parent to record Many of the 44 thieves in Bowlbys study had been moved around a lot during childhood, and had probably never formed an attachment. The development of affective responsiveness in infant monkeys.

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 102,501 -509. D( B\7ad4 c`e"$h.Fp *iIyRD-F#`c!T;3iLf`x8NUsh2SquHM!@p9LfMXX:]MKo0a|9# o2f yQFcz} e(m&EAyAl'!`23[: GSl/^u2n3A(c:X8! (Bowlby) then conducted an initial interview with the child and accompanying parent (e.g., diagnosing affectionless psychopathy). Rutter stresses that the quality of the attachment bond is the most important factor, rather than just deprivation in the critical period. While they still accept care from others, infants start distinguishing between familiar and unfamiliar people, responding more positively to the primary caregiver. Behaviorists suggest that it was food that led to forming this attachment behavior, but Bowlby and others demonstrated that nurturance and responsiveness were the primary determinants of attachment. Main M, Solomon J.

Bowlbys (1944, 1956) ideas had a great influence on the way researchers thought about attachment, and much of the discussion of his theory has focused on his belief in monotropy. World Health Organization Monograph. Ever wonder what your personality type means? This is correlational data and as such only shows a relationship between these two variables. According to Bowlby (1969), the primary caregiver acts as a prototype for future relationships via the internal working model. T :>o4cW)ti^K4r`n*6FnX#dKt"#g]/ r.7xVXWk.,rhiM;c ^@6;j6zz SWU= 9 Between 6 weeks of age to 7 months, infants begin to show preferences for primary and secondary caregivers. Simply Scholar Ltd - All rights reserved, A-level Psychology Attachment Revision Notes. Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. 1958;39:350-371. If the attachment figure is broken or disrupted during the critical two year period, the child will suffer irreversible long-term consequences of this maternal deprivation. This shows the influence of social factors. Bowlby also postulated that the fear of strangers represents an important survival mechanism, built in by nature.

In They found three progressive stages of distress: These findings contradicted the dominant behavioral theory of attachment (Dollard and Miller, 1950) which was shown to underestimate the childs bond with their mother. This figure raised to 80% when this occurred in a context of poverty (Lyons-Ruth,1988). Loss: Sadness & depression. her one-year-old infant: Environment, interaction, Personality development in the evolutionary perspective. Read our, What You Should Know About Attachment Styles. (1944). (1969). Our website is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Radke-Yarrow, M., Cummings, E. M., Kuczynski, L., & Chapman, M. (1985). This internal working model is a cognitive framework comprising mental representations for understanding the world, self, and others. Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology. When children are frightened, they seek proximity from their primary caregiver in order to receive both comfort and care. Other attachments may develop in a hierarchy below this. The depressed mother and

One of the wire monkeys held a bottle from which the infant monkey could obtain nourishment, while the other wire monkey was covered with a soft terry cloth. Medical Reviewers confirm the content is thorough and accurate, reflecting the latest evidence-based research. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 25(19-52), 107-127. Consequently, his findings may have unconsciously influenced by his own expectations. This means infants are biologically programmed with innate behaviors that ensure that attachment occurs. London: Penguin Books. Adults who were securely attached in childhood tend to have good self-esteem, strong romantic relationships, and the ability to self-disclose to others. Mother-child separation. Some of the earliest behavioral theories suggested that attachment was simply a learned behavior. 2BP5H:\G4 4\`e6Au H(Ug9CsY+#h,>edv.ph4Z~5*!g ajqGnk-841%}Nr*1Vn Rwk_{Bs 0 3cA fuB4B7d040O"A1#c423,L^>cA=#)CyL +\D}DM1US%!D8 J0ektW(cn;`@6/8uW/MOB}#It|qjqW x3e{$0G9DU{NY%~+q5j-'XWj:8@ n E]'C1h#4`O,4A4KQ,4JkDh>*1X eB0-sc|1HS^'H fx%pdRy@YTva>GhFU%E@Ze4VXM%2F Based on the responses the researchers observed, Ainsworth described three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment. Proceedings Child Development, 283-305. Stress, coping and development: Some issues and some questions. Simply Psychology's content is for informational and educational purposes only. Infants develop trust that the caregiver will respond to their needs. None of the control group were affectionless psychopaths. Although attachment styles displayed in adulthood are not necessarily the same as those seen in infancy, early attachments can have a serious impact on later relationships. Instinctively, caregivers respond to their childrens behavior creating a reciprocal pattern of interaction. This risk continues until the age of five. While the infant monkeys would go to the wire mother to obtain food, they spent most of their days with the soft cloth mother. He described attachment as a "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings." eq!DCFD0ijy+v|az.FDJY}53r)CPPL8GU. Our website is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Lorenz, K. (1935). Attachment. This is called monotropy. It becomes a prototype for all future social relationships and allows individuals to predict, control and manipulate interactions with others. Development and Psychopathology, 4(03), 433-449. 1964;29:1-77. doi:10.2307/1165727, Lyons-Ruth K. Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Her groundbreaking "strange situation" studyrevealed the profound effects of attachment on behavior. _`&HY@b YhA70g*q2E+@2h'zB1f;(d)-m2SXM]a4TDXBS>`CetYM!Yz"6Jv-Bcsn{e>3VLRU7%vZ Harlow's work also demonstrated that early attachments were the result of receiving comfort and care from a caregiver rather than simply the result of being fed. 89 Internal working models Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K.A. Der Artgenosse als auslsendes Moment sozialer Verhaltensweisen. Rutter, M. (1972). Although Bowlby may not dispute that young children form multiple attachments, he still contends that the attachment to the mother is unique in that it is the first to appear and remains the strongest of all. For example, showing no guilt for antisocial behavior. Instead, he found that attachment was characterized by clear behavioral and motivation patterns. This led to a very important study on the long-term effects of privation, carried out by Hodges and Tizard (1989). This often includes a second parent, older siblings, and grandparents. Weisner, T. S., & Gallimore, R. (1977). Because the caregiver feeds the child and provides nourishment, the child becomes attached. Bowlby worked. The nature of the child's tie to his mother. Konrad Lorenz (1935) supports Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis as the attachment process of imprinting is an innate process. (1992) support the maternal deprivation hypothesis.

These attachment behaviors initially function like fixed action patterns and all share the same function. undermines their validity. He diagnosed this as a condition and called it Affectionless Psychopathy. Routledge. My brother's keeper: Child and sibling caretaking. group. oC<7i ^C:N-P5IXnz09C@9|j;s.Z\ >:kj n.E1lApJj,&EuDxUz 5kO]JeP0`E+u7P4F:h89/* q8#9bo=? ), Handbook of attachment: D( B\7ad4 Xe"$h.FG#p *iIyRD-`cQ#0;c:c o7o0@p9mVqy9NbtFSia)wkiXKa)bh.Lt#A(8WM9i Mz 7y\sa|F\ &as #vaS8*34D*MZZmK`0 6K~0+Z-CH.w.:D2:>7|06Ls>D!k&xk)6 o4c@2F3C4z7>j8CN "3 12M34J\ s, 4q;xO{2x There is evidence that children develop better with a mother who is happy in her work, than a mother who is frustrated by staying at home (Schaffer, 1990). (1999). Maternal deprivation, 1972-1978: New findings, new concepts, new approaches. This suggested that they were suffering from privation, rather than deprivation, which Rutter suggested was far more deleterious to the children. Bowlby's attachment theory. these are species-specific behaviors. The Internal Working Models Concept: What Do We Really Know A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development, 137-157. Bowlbys monotropic theory of attachment suggests attachment is important for a childs survival. Rutter argues that these problems are not due solely to the lack of attachment to a mother figure, as Bowlby claimed, but to factors such as the lack of intellectual stimulation and social experiences which attachments normally provide. Procedure: Between 1936 and 1939 an opportunity sample of 88 children was selected from the clinic where This potentially (1952). Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Bowlby J. Thus, as Rutter (1972) pointed out, Bowlbys conclusions were flawed, mixing up cause and effect with correlation. Bowlbys theory of monotropy led to the formulation of his maternal deprivation hypothesis. Mental Health and Infant Development, 1, 117-122. yons-Ruth, K., Zoll, D., Connell, D., & Grunebaum, attachment, and infant development. E. Tronick & T. Field (Eds. Particularly as he was responsible for making the diagnosis of affectionless psychopathy. In one version of his experiment, newborn rhesus monkeys were separated from their birth mothers and reared by surrogate mothers. jZ 4rCee;%tth$0s ]\2tY@eK*P6SU#M8S}= " s!>*}g+bAlzq2idzTI P9Z+vL_NiyRj:&'x+?$o&5#X @ \9%PdJ5[ NjY0)~et4'hZ)((E7> u9f IVY9 Z %9L-c ]Jm(E5)MG| Maternal care and mental health. 2022 Dotdash Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Attachment and loss: Vol. Forty-four juvenile thieves: Their characters and home life. Journal fr Ornithologie 83, 137215. Shaver (Eds. Discovery of a new, insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Only 17% of the thieves not diagnosed as affectionless psychopaths had experienced maternal separation. mother) could result in long term cognitive, social, and emotional difficulties for that infant. 3); (International psycho-analytical library no.109). Bowlby, this condition involves a lack of emotional development, characterized by a lack of concern for others,

Bowlby (1951) claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months, i.e., there is a critical period. Evaluation: The supporting evidence that Bowlby (1944) provided was in the form of clinical interviews of, and retrospective data on, those who had and had not been separated from their primary caregiver.



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