Bennett (as cited in Stone, 2013) defined OR, Research indicates (Bennett, as cited in Stone, 2013). (8.9). Privacy King, K. M., Pierce, G., Folsom, L., Cessna, W., Jaggers, J. R., & Wintergerst, K. A. Sometimes, however, only a secondary/indirect source is available. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible for when the communication occurred: N.D. Tyson (personal communication, June 10, 2017), (M. Gillespie, personal communication, May 15, 2018), How do I cite a lecture or presentation? course work, or report a broken link. Concordia University is located on unceded Indigenous lands. first citation: Place citations with no date first, followed by works with dates in chronological order; in-press citations appear last. W. Webster Library Hours and contact information, Grey Nuns Reading Room & Group Study Rooms, Vanier Library Hours and contact information. ", How do I cite an indirect (secondary) source? How do I cite more than one source in the same parentheses? How do I cite an indirect (secondary) source? See the entry on Secondary Sources in the APA style blog for more information. Secondary source (When an author quotes another author)(Sec. For works with an unknown author (see Section 9.12), include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation (note that the title moves to the author position in the reference list entry as well). The Kanien'keh:ka Nation is recognized as the custodians of Tiohti:ke/Montral. Managing human resources (4th ed.). If the title of the work is not italicized in the reference, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation. (8.9), "If you learned about a topic via a classroom lecture, it would be preferable to cite the research on which the instructor based the lecture. Thereafter, use the abbreviation for all mentions of the group in the text (see Section 8.21 of. Physical address 1400 De Maisonneuve Blvd. Ask your lecturer or supervisor if you are unsure which edition to use. If the year of the primary source is unknown, omit it from the in-text citation. If the title of the work is italicized in the reference, also italicize the title in the in-text citation. Frequently Asked Questions about In-Text Citation: When paraphrasing, how often should I cite a source? If the work does not have page numbers, provide another way for the reader to locate the quotation (see Section 8.28). Terms Publisher. Use the Tab and Up, Down arrow keys to select menu items. Intercampus Delivery of Bound Periodicals/Microforms, Desktop computers, software & availability maps, Group study, presentation practice & classrooms, Citing specific parts (pages, sections, & paragraphs), Anthologies, coursepacks, dictionaries & encyclopedias, How to set up a running head APA style in MS Word, Give feedback about the
For example, it is considered overcitation to repeat the same citation in every sentence when the source and topic have not changed. "suggest that physicians recommend a plant-based diet to all patients, particularly those with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity (Tuso, 2013, as cited in King et al., 2020). Provide the secondary source in the reference list, NOT the original source; in text, name the original work and give the citation for the secondary source (listed in your reference list): Gunderson's research (as cited in Kuthrapali, 2017). Contact us In text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source. If the title is long, shorten it for the in-text citation.". 8.6APA Publication Manual, p.258). If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. How do I cite more than one source in the same parentheses? (8.12), "When citing multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons. Do I need to include a parenthetical citation at the end of each sentence? Allport's diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003), How do I cite a personal communication? Championing whole-food and plant-based diets: The role of the health and fitness professional. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. To indicate a single page, use the abbreviation "p.p" (e.g., p. 25, p.S41, p. e221); for multiple pages, use the abbreviation "pp." Consult a librarian for help finding the original source if needed. Title of article: Subtitle information. Even when sources cannot be retrieved (e.g. World Health Organization (WHO, 2020), ** Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. However, if the lecture contained original content not published elsewhere, cite the lecture as a personal communication". (2020).
The table below provides examples of how to cite your sources in text, whether you use the author's name as part of the narrativeor you include the citation information in parentheses (called a parenthetical citation). (8.1), "Avoid both undercitation and overcitation. Cite personal communications such as emails,letters, telephone conversations, personal interviews, etc. because they are personal communications; see Section 8.9), you still need to credit them in the text. Only the source you have in hand is the one that goes into your Reference list. If pages are discontinuous, use a comma between the page numbers (e.g., pp. Give the authors' surnames once; for each subsequent work, give only the date. See Section 9.49 for how to order works with no authors in the reference list. Use direct quotations rather than paraphrasing when reproducing an exact definition (see example in Section 6.22), when an author has said something memorably or succinctly, or when you want to respond to exact wording (e.g., something someone said).". This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.
and separate the page range with an en dash (e.g., pp. Use personal communication citations only when a recoverable source is not available. APA cautions that you should, whenever possible, take material from the original source. "When quoting directly, always provide the author, year, and page number of the quotation in the in-text citation in either parenthetical or narrative format (see Section 8.11). Overcitation can be distracting and is unnecessary. When the year of the indirect source is known, include it in the text. Library's spaces, services, and/or collections, Get help with my research, It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. If available, include the year of the original source to help the reader locate it in the secondary source, e.g. Listing both parenthetical in-text citations and reference list entries in alphabetical order helps readers locate and retrieve works because they are listed in the same order in both places. 67, 72). (2013). Emergency info Researchers, Tuso et al. An indirect or secondary source is onethat is cited in another person's work. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. University of Canterbury - A Fair Trade University, Technology Enabled Learning Facility (TELF), Engineering and Physical Sciences Library. 34-36). Thanks for your time. Accessibility Author, A.A. (date). However, if the lecture contained original content not published elsewhere, cite the lecture as. ", (Fischer et al., 2011;Hasan, 2017;Polmanet al., 2008), "Arrange two or more works by the same authors by year of publication. (8.6). Bennett (2000, as cited in Stone, 2013) defined OR, Research indicates (Bennett, 2000, as cited in Stone, 2013). However, use this type of source sparingly! Do I need to include a parenthetical citation at the end of each sentence? When citing a work which is discussed in another work, include the original author's name in an explanatory sentence, and then include the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your reference list. W. Mailing address 1455 De Maisonneuve Blvd. For example, if Bennett's work is cited in a book by Stone (2013) and you didn't read Bennett's original work, list the source you did read (in this case Stone) in the reference list. Montreal, QC, Canada. in the text only. ", "A direct quotationreproduces words verbatim from another work of from your own previously published work.
Since you can't provide retrieval information for these sources, they are not included in the reference list.
(World Health Organization [WHO], 2020), first reference: When paraphrasing, how often should I cite a source? Feedback, Concordia University. Milton, Australia: Wiley. For sources that you have not actually seen but which are referred to in another work, list the secondary source (the source you have read) in the Reference List. The 7th edition of APA was published in October 2019. Stone, R. J. What if the work doesn't have an author? For help citing block quotations (40 words or more), see section 8.27of the APA Manual. (8.14), "When the author of a work is not named, the author may be unknown (i.e., no author is listed on the work, as with a religious work) or identified specificallyas "Anonymous". Thereafter, use the abbreviation for all mentions of the group in the text (see Section 8.21 ofAPA Style Manual, 7th edition). ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal, 24(4), 5054. For help citing block quotations (40 words or more), see section 8.27of the, "If you learned about a topic via a classroom lecture, it would be preferable to cite the research on which the instructor based the lecture. For more information, refer to sections 8.17-21of the APA Style Manual, 7th edition. In some cases, however, the original work may be unavailable, and so you must rely on the secondary citation. Undercitation can lead to plagiarism (see Section 8.2) and/or self plagiarism (see Section 8.3). Whenever possible, find and cite the original work. Some departments and lecturers may still be using the 6th edition. Books, Reports, Gray Literature & Presentations, The table below provides examples of how to cite your sources in text, whether you use the author's name as part of the narrativeor you include the citation information in parentheses (called a, ** Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format. It is best ot paraphrase sources (see Sections 8.23-8.24) rather than directly quoting them because paraphrasing allows you to fit material to the context of your paper and writing style.
Capitalize these titles in the text using title case (see Section 6.17), even though sentence case is used in the reference list entry. Instead, when paraphrasing a key point in more than one sentence within a paragraph, cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the sources remains clear and unchanged (see Section 8.24). Please select your area of feedback.